Victoria II Kingdom of Hungary AAR - The War of Hungarian Independence (1846-1847)

Author: johnr754
Published: 2017-02-01, edited: 1970-01-01

Part of the campaign:

Federal Republic of Hungary AAR

The Kingdom of Hungary
After the Battle of Mohacs, Hungary was partitioned between the Ottoman Empire and the Austrian Habsburgs. By 1718, Hungary was entirely under the rule of the Austrian Habsburgs. Hungary itself never regained full independence - although the Diet of Hungary remained a mainly separate institution from the Imperial Court in Vienna, Hungary itself seemed permanently tied to the Habsburg monarchy.
Army Act of 1842
On 7 January 1842, pressure from Hungarian nobility led to the "Army Act" passed by the incapitated Emperor Ferdinand von Habsburg, where the Army was to be split between the lands of the Kingdom of Hungary and the lands of Austria proper. This was controversial among many Austrian elite, as they thought it would make the possibility of a Hungarian revolution easier for them.
Hungarian Language
The Language Act made it so that the only language in the Diet of Hungary was to be Hungarian. German was allowed, but Hungarian was more-or-less encouraged.
Reorganized Austrian Regiments
Uprising of 14 June 1844
Sparked by an attempt by Venetian revolutionaries to gain independence, liberals throughout the country start an uprising in an attempt to force Metternich to allow elections.
Slovak Uprising of 19 March 1845
This was followed by the Slovak Uprising, which was crushed by a combination of Austrian and Hungarian forces.
Liberal Uprising
As Austria loses stability, more and more uprisings occur. Thousands upon thousands of people emigrate the Empire for the United States.
1 December Uprising
On the First of December, Hungarian revolutionaries start an uprising.

Realizing the Austrian Army was weak, the Hungarian Diet makes a big move.
Independence Act of 1 December 1846
The Diet of Hungary proclaimed their independence from the Austrian Empire in 6 December 1846. No more shall we struggle under the German boot, but we shall be united under the Royal Capital of Pest. In the Act, the Regent was declared to be Lajos Kossuth, while the Prime Minister was declared to be Lajos Batthyany.
Kingdom of Hungary
The Croatians, however, refuse the join the uprising. Their decision to remain with the Austrian Habsburgs will be punished later.
The Revolution begins.
Metternich is extremely angered by the Diet's attempt to declare independence. Like all independence movements, he pledges to take care of them.
We cannot do this with only our standing army. We must mobilize the peasants and farmers of Hungary to serve for the Kingdom.
The Plan
The Lands of Saint Stephen - specifically Poszony - are only miles away from the Austrian capital of Vienna. It is decided that one army will take Vienna as soon as possible to force the Austrian nobility into a truce, while another army will invade Croatia, and a smaller regiment invades Galicia.
Battle of Nyitra
As a large Hungarian regiment arrives in the Slovak city of Nyitra, a battle begins between the Hungarian and Austrian regiments.
Defensive position of Austria
However, von Hess's army takes massive casualties for doing this on a hilly landscape while crossing a river.
The Victory at Nytria would be a sign of sad things to come for the Austrian Habsburgs. No more will you be the dominant Central European power.
Battle of Vienna, 1846
Bem's army, taking little causalties, defeats a regiment in Vienna. The occupation begins.
Battle of Vienna
Battle of Kapsovar
Attempting to rid of another Austrian regiment, two Hungarian armies attack - from the south and the north. Defeating this army as it stands right now would prevent future problems.
Montenegrin-Hungarian Alliance
Realizing that a new country needs new allies, Petar II of the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro offers a military pact to the Hungarian government. Kossuth agrees, and the Treaty of Cetinje was ratified.
End of serfdom
In an attempt for the Revolution to gain legitimacy among Romanians, Germans and Serbs, Kossuth agrees to end Serfdom for all Peoples in the Kingdom of Hungary, to the ire of the land-owning aristocracy.
Siege of Vienna
After four months, Vienna was besieged and occupied by the Hungarian Army.
As Hungarian regiments storm the Schonbrunn palace in 1 June 1847, the Habsburg royal family fails to flee and is imprisoned by the Hungarian Army.
Metternich's failure
Metternich himself was also captured by the Army, himself the effective leader of the Austrian Empire due to Emperor Ferdinand's disabilities. Pressure from the Habsburg family and other imprisoned aristocrats led to him agreeing to sign the Armistice of Poszony.
Armistice of Poszony
As dictated in the Armistice:

1. The lands of the Kingdom of Hungary that revolted from the Empire shall become completely separated from the Empire.

2. The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia shall remain under Austrian Habsburg rule.

3. There will be no ability to declare war on each other for five years.

Finally, for the first time in three centuries, Hungary was truly free and was able to dictate her own will.
As mentioned in the Armistice, Croatia-Slavonia remained under Habsburg rule. Although the Government already plans to find a way to declare war for Croatia when Austria is weak, we must wait for over five years for the time.
The Kingdom of Hungary's New King
Finally, Hungary is free. However, there is no true King ruling yet. The entire Diet is, unsurprisingly, entirely opposed to a Habsburg ruling Hungary once more. There are several options that have been considered by Regent Kossuth and other Hungarian elites:

- Henri V Bourbon, claimant to the French throne and part of the House of Bourbon
- Karl von Hohenzollern, son of Frederick Wilhelm III and part of the ruling House of Hohenzollern in Prussia
- August von Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, part of the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha dynasty
- Proclaim Kossuth as King of Hungary
- Proclaim Kossuth as President of Hungary for life
- Establish a Republic

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Next chapter:

Game: Victoria 2

Victoria II Kingdom of Hungary AAR - Part II - The Slavonian War

Images: 58, author: johnr754, published: 2017-02-01, edited: 1970-01-01

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