God Wills It - A HPM Roman AAR - Part 11

Author: ElvenAshwin
Published: 2017-02-06, edited: 1970-01-01

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God Wills It - A HPM Roman AAR

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God Wills It - A HPM Roman AAR - Part 10

Images: 76, author: ElvenAshwin, published: 2017-02-06, edited: 1970-01-01

Scandal, what scandal?
Soon after assuming position of Dictator, Primo addresses the Senate. Whilst the powers of the dictatorship allow him to delay, indefinitely, his trials, they do not allow him to drop charges entirely.

He proposes a compromise deal: he will hold the dictatorship until the next election cycle, upon when he resign from his post and plead guilty to all charges. The Senate largely disapproves, but is unable to contest this, given the powers provided to Primo as dictator.

Primo's goal is to delay long enough for the Roman public's fury over the scandal to die down, in order to safely secure yet another Socialist victory. By fully admitting responsibility for all charges, he hopes to mend broken bridges.
The Roman Navy reacts
The proclamation of Primo as dictator sees a wary response by the military. Under Nicola Filangieri's advice and leadership, top Roman generals affirm their loyalty to the dictator and to the state, removing the threat of a military coup.

The Roman Navy, led by Admiral Bonaccorsi, obeys Primo's orders and sets sail for Cuba, where their goal is to prevent the Americans from landing on the isle.
The Roman Navy Arrives
The Second Fleet arrives in Santiago de Cuba, where Admiral Clary is placed in charge of leading the defense of the isle. Primo chooses not to move any legions to Cuba so as to avoid controversy over "sending young men to die" so he could hold office.
Thanks, Spain
We officially get permission to use Spain's ports, as previously their men refused to repair our boats as we weren't a Spanish fleet.
Alright, America, it's time to -
Our navy heads along the East Coast, hoping to sink an American fleet and convince them to end the war. As we approach Maryland, our scouts report that an American fleet three times our size lies in the harbour.

Admiral Clary hangs around in the region for a few days, unsure of the composition of the American fleet and wishing to bait them out, but they do not leave the port.
A stalemate
With the Americans not leaving the port nor attempting aggressive actions against Cuba, the Second Fleet returns back to Cuba, ready to act should any American interference be observed.

This thus puts the Spanish-American War into the zone of a frozen conflict, which is precisely what Primo needs in order to continue holding his dictatorship.

Meanwhile, Primo begins taking steps to salvage the Socialist Party. He officially removes himself from the position of the head of the Party and removes himself from the Supreme Council. Instead, he appoints Nicola Filangieri, the former General with no political experience, to the head of the Socialist Party in order to rescue the party.

The Supreme Council then holds an inter-party trial of the Consul, finding him guilty of abuse of power and ejecting him out of the party entirely, in a highly publicized move.
A crisis in Poland
In a strange twist of fate, the necessity of keeping public opinion up leaves Primo a lameduck slave to the Senate, forced to consult them and obliged to carry out their opinion lest he come across as authoritarian.

A crisis breaks out in Krakow, where the Polish population riots and burns down several Austro-Hungarian official buildings, in the culmination of years of violence in the region. The international community stands to act.
We watch and ultimately do nothing
With the Austro-Hungarians now firmly aligned in the Triple Entente consisting of France and the Ottoman Empire, only Germany and the Republic stand to contest them. Relegated to a lame duck, Primo declines to intervene, and the Germans have insufficient support to act.
The Spanish Withdrawal
In September, delegates from all the European states meet in Berlin where the final borders of Africa are drawn up. The Spaniards, in this conference, agree to retreat from Saoura, in exchange for a guarantee on the protection of their lands elsewhere.
The Final Map of Africa
The east is almost entirely dominated by Rome: Sweden, who owns Kenya and Tanzania and the rest of eastern sub-equatorial Africa, is within our sphere of influence. Furthermore, our territory stretches into the Congo Basin and approaches Nigeria in a single, cohesive block.

The French are largely cut off from expansion deeper into Africa after they lost control of Ivory Coast to the French Communists, and were unable to invade and capture Algeria. The Germans seized Nigeria but not much more.

Ultimately, Rome comes out tied with the British Empire as winners of the Scramble for Africa. In the Berlin Conference, all nations agree to respect each other's colonial boundaries: except Rome refuses to acknowledge the North Egyptian Coast as rightful French territory.
Frigate Spam
Meanwhile, the Roman Navy crafts a third fleet consisting purely of frigates so as to protect our large colonial gains.

The Socialist Party is unable to tout the success of its colonial policy, largely afraid of ever referencing something done under Primo's leadership.
The Socialist Push continues
Even without their leader, the socialists in the Senate form a coalition with members of the Moderate Party from the South, who, by demographics, are forced to be more accepting towards socialist economic policy. They use this to successfully pass a pensions bill that had been debated for close to two years, just before the elections for the next years' Senatorial Elections.
The 26th Roman Senate
The scandal has left the Senate largely useless over the last year, but the final succession of the pensions expansion bill manages to win over voters. The Socialists recover, earning an equal proportion of the Senate as the Conservatives, but the Liberals maintain their plurality. For the most part, the liberal policy of regaining control in local elections and the Senate has proved successful, setting themselves up for a strong bid for the Consulship.

The Socialists are not resting, however, and Nicola Filangieri enters the Roman Senate as a Socialist Senator from Rome. This now sets him up as the new "effective" Consul as Primo bides his time. As such, they have successfully managed to separate Primo from their party, and have elected in a wildly popular former general.
Naval Advancement
The Moderates now begin allying with pro-war elements of the Socialists to push forth a naval modernization build, allocating large resources to creating a navy to be "competitive with the British Navy".
All Quiet on the Western Front
Despite over a year of the two nations being formally at war, there has been no progress at all in finding a settlement. The occasional Cuban or American fisherman is killed, but there have been no engagements. Back in Cuba itself, the Spanish have put down the rebellion that triggered the war.
Oh, goddamnit Sweden
Meanwhile, a small Swedish expeditionary force lands and attacks Alaska, for some reason.

We appreciate the help.
Further naval expansion
We now are nearly less than 30 years behind in naval technology!
Primo stands down
On January 1 1898, four years after his last election, Primo voluntarily renounces the dictatorship, announces the start of the campaign season, and resigns from office. Nicola Filangieri is temporarily made interim Consul, and Primo is immediately arrested. Facing the death penalty for his role in multiple murders, Primo commits suicide.

Immediately, there is some infighting in the Socialist Party. Filangieri is more moderate and fairly pacifist relative to the Socialist Party line - this prompts former Senator Claudio Alescio, who aims to run a imperialist, purist campaign and also plans to remove all corrupt elements of the Socialist Party, to primary Filangieri.

The primary season occupies two months of the campaigning season, largely incapacitating the Socialist Party. Ultimately, fearing that the populist, ideologically extreme and pure Alescio might take down their best chance at the Consulship, the Socialist Party suspends the planned date for the primaries, ejects Alescio from the party and names Filangieri their nominee.

The liberals, believing this to be the best and only opportunity to finally take down the Socialist behemoth, field Gioele Cali, a Sicilian Senator who was the subject of a Primo-led assassination attempt. The liberals hammer reform as well as the investigation of all Socialist practices as a key part of their agenda.

The Moderates field Ruperto Tomasso, a former magistrate who was removed from office by Primo and was a journalist at the Roman Times who covered the Primo Scandal extensively. Magistrate Tomasso believes that the Socialist Party as a whole ought to be investigated and, if need be, banned, due to corrupt practices.
The Socialist Coalition
Despite the strong and aggressive posture put forth in the Consul elections, the Senate remains strongly pro-Socialist, thanks to Moderates from the South willingly allying with the Socialists to preserve their careers.
Pensions Expansions
In order to aid Filangieri's campaign, the Socialist Party Senators push through another bill drastically expanding the size of the pensions system, which comes under fire from Liberal Senators for stretching the burdens of the state and keeping taxes high.
Violence between suffragists
Violence erupts between groups of women's rights activists: some only support the reversal of the Women's Education Act and the Women's Rights Amendment, whereas others want to push for all that and voting rights. The latter accuses the former of being ideologically impure, leaving the two divided and weakened. Some more extreme activists are offensive enough to make their way into the papers, where the reactionaries paint all of them as "madmen".
Attempted takeover in Algeria
As acting Consul, Filangieri opposes French attempts to expand into Algeria, keeping the small state secure from the French protectorate that surrounds it.
Won't you give up
The standoff with the Americans continue well into the campaign season, but is largely a nonfactor.
The 1898 Roman Elections
As voting data floods into Rome, the candidates and party delegates wait for results nervously. On the morning of August 1 1898, the name of the Consul to lead us into the 20th century is printed across newspapers.

Nicola Filangieri and the Socialist Party retain their grip on the Consulship, with 34.5% of the vote. This is a massive deprovement from their record high of 50%, but the fact that they manage to hold on the Consulship at all is a testament to the power and appeal of the Christian Socialist message.

The Liberal Party continues its rise from its low during Grifeo's reign, and finishes within 5% of the Socialists. It is believed they largely absorbed socially liberal individuals who supported the Socialists for economic policy reasons but ultimately left the party following the Primo Scandal and the Womens' Education Act.

The Moderates and the Restorationists, having eternally lost the religious vote, seem to no longer be competitive in Consulship elections, but continue to hold large sway in the Senate as the only party willing to compromise.

The Liberals, despite failing to finally cut the head of the Socialist hydra, turn their attention to reform of the dictatorship to prevent the avoidance of justice that occured under Primo. They propose a series of amendments to the constitution, allowing the Consul to nominate a Dictator (who may be himself), but setting restrictions for who can be a dictator (including not presently being impeached). This thus preserves the use of the dictatorship in times on grave danger to the Republic, but prevents it being used to dodge an impeachment. Furthermore, the Consul can only nominate a dictator following the Senate's approval via majority.

The amendment passes in the Senate, but further liberal goals such as an amendment introducing term limits and a push to try many more members of the Socialist Party are struck down. Consul Filangieri, in a controversial move, pardons all accused members of the party.
Full steam ahead on the liberal movement
Liberals continue to face increased support as the Women's Rights movement picks up steam. Repeal of the Women's Education Act and the Women's Rights Amendment becomes an official part of the party platform.
Filangieri starts off his Consulship by ordering the Second Fleet to establish a blockade on Florida's ports, in an attempt to pressure the Americans in giving up the war.

The Americans agree to a white peace following the establishment of this blockade.
Destroying the earth
News arrives to the Consul that the nation's burgeoning electronics industry is on the verge of a major shortage of rubber, which could have catastrophic effects on the economy and would necessitate an immediate slowdown in jobs creation.
The Cruiser
Our military now knows how to build cruisers. Hip hip hurrah, we might have an actual navy!
We might need better ports for this
As Filangieri prepares for naval expansion, he gives a speech detailing his plan for the next four years. He makes it clear that he aims for a near totally peaceful reign, focused on expansion of the navy and warding off British attacks on their existing colonies. He hopes to enforce Roman "soft power" rather than engage in military activities.

In terms of domestic policy, Filangieri is largely uninterested, and will leave it to the Senate.

Both of these announcements leaves former Socialist and Senator Claudio Alescio furious, and Filangieri's disinterest in domestic policy is not welcomed among voters.
Foreign Aid
The Consul orders for railroad construction to proceed in Persia and Nejd. He hopes to win over the entirety of the greater Middle-East and move them firmly into the Roman sphere. This opens up a new line of attack against the British Empire, which presently holds sway in Persia.
Courting them into the Roman-German Axis
The Empire leaves the Austro-Hungarian Axis, reducing pressure on the Roman colonies, and aligns with Germany. The Consul considers attempting to incorporate the Ottoman Empire into the Republic's sphere, but fears a German response.
The Naval Expansion Act
Filangieri approves for over half million pounds to be spent on the construction of naval bases across the Empire so as to expand the reach of the Roman Navy.
"Germany has decided to support Poland in this crisis" What Could Go Wrong?
Tensions break out in Poland when several pro-independence protestors launch a strike, resulting in clashes with police that devolves into a large riot in which a segment of the city burns down.

This prompts the Russian army to react a few days later, in an incident where numerous Polish civilians are killed, prompting German outcry (as Germans are well known for opposing the death of Poles).
The March to Oblivion
The German Kaiser Wilhelm II uses the opportunity to manufacture a war against the Russian Empire, triggering a crisis as the they threaten to intervene militarily to "protect Polish citizens".

With much of Europe having been at peace since the mid-1880s, much of the European powers are itching for warfare.
The Stage is Set
Consul Filangieri is faced with the potential headache of a war early into his supposedly "peaceful" term, but concludes that as a well-known Roman war hero, he would be the best to lead the nation into a conflict that was a long time coming.

He opts to side with the German axis, whilst the French rush to side of Russia, and attempt to activate the Triple Entente. The Austro-Hungarians, however, remain uncertain.
The Triple Entente vs the German Axis
The Austro-Hungarians are ultimately pushed to the side of the Russians and the French once they are convinced that the Germans would not risk a war which is clearly not in their favour.

However, the German Kaiser refuses to back down, believing that he stands a chance of quickly knocking France out of the war, based on their previous failure in the Italian War of Unification and related conflicts, and could then turn to the east.

Within Rome itself, Claudio Alescio gives a speech to interested onlookers about a "New Roman Empire", advocating for war with Austria and France and the "annihilation" of the enemies of state.

Consul Filangieri arranges for a meeting with his military commanders.
The Defensive Posture
The Romans decide upon a purely defensive tactic, with the guaranteed support of the Republic of Savoy. We plan not to advance into France or Austria, but rather attempt to distract them with a second front and buy the Germans time.

The Germans, however, urge us to attack the Austrians in the early stages of the war, putting pressure on Vienna and stopping the Austrians from staging a rapid advance towards Berlin. The Roman High Command, aware of the weak French military, considers delegating troops away from the western front and towards attacking Austria.
The position in Africa
With the Ottomans aligned to the Germans, our colonies are entirely surrounded by friendly (or neutral) states, thus allowing us to put our focus on attacking the French coast in the north.
The French Coast in the South
We obtain permission from the Spanish government to station our fleet in their port in Barcelona, from where we could lead a blockade of the French Mediterranean coast.
"Socialist Agitation"
Several workers in Sicily have begun organizing into their unions, which is perfectly legal, but they've started to become a bit uppity about performing their work. The Liberal Party pushes for national guard units to be moved into the region so as to quell any violence - the socialists strike back against this endeavour and it fails in the Senate.
War is great for profit margins
The continued crisis in Poland has result in a massive surge in demand for military goods. As Rome has a fairly functional military industry, this sees large profits on our end.

As far as central planning strategy goes, having factories profitable in wartime, and other factories profitable in peace, prevent a total collapse of our economy ever occurring should war break out. It also assists in supplying our army should the global market freeze over.
The Senate passes several bills allocating greater funding to military expenditure. The Army uses this money to stockpile huge quantities of essential supplies. The British, though interested in seeing us fail in his conflict, are also interested in making a quick buck and gladly trade with us.

Meanwhile, Consul Filangieri attends an emergency conference in London where he attempts to reach a settlement: greater autonomy for the poles, but they will still remain under Russian rule.
The Final Countdown
As November dawns, it is becoming increasingly clear that the war is incoming, and the peace efforts will fail. Simply put, the two sides are too evenly matched.

Thus far, no nation has mobilized.
Beat the drums of war
Military spending is drastically increased, plunging our coffers into a massive deficit.

The Senate is stuck with a difficult choice over how they can help make up the shortfall - raising tariffs, which could threaten our industry, or slicing government programs, which could harm our people for a fairly long war.
A final bill
As all of Europe holds its breath, the socialists in the Senate use the opportunity to attempt a final-hour placation of the populace, passing a bill limiting work hours to 14 per day. This is largely inconsequential - unions had already dragged down work hours to below this limit, but looks good just before a Senatorial election.
The planned budget for 1900
Social spending is heavily slashed, the navy has its budget cut in half, government administration has its budget slightly reduced and our spending on education is also reduced signififcantly.

Even with all these measures, and a tariff hike, we are barely breaking even.
December 12 1899
In December, everything falls apart. On December 6, A-H mobilizes, triggering the Germans to mobilize on the 7th. On the 9th, the French mobilize. Finally, on the 12th, the Russians mobilize.
On the Edge of Disaster
Following the Russian mobilization, however, Germany drops its claims unconditionally. As the aggressor in the conflict, they are thoroughly shamed, but there is no further consequence.

Europe will burn another day.
Undo literally everything
With the war now no longer on schedule, the Liberal Party proposes a drastic reduction in military spending, to levels lower than before the war preparations began.

With this extra money, the previous spending bill is repealed, and additionally tariffs are cut entirely and replaced by import subsidies, and taxes on the lowest income bracket are reduced. After all of this, the surplus is still higher than ever before. Whilst this faces some opposition from the more militaristic members of the Senate, ultimately is passed by a massive coalition of members of all three parties.

The bill, the Ciervo Spending Bill, named after Liberal Senator Adeodata Ciervo, is a massive victory for the Liberal Party.
The 28th Roman Senate
The Labour Exploitation Act, limiting work hours, and the Ciervo Bill both help propel the Liberal and Socialist Parties to secure a greater quantity of the Senate. The Liberals managed to stop the Socialists from closing the gap on their lead, boding well for the next election cycle.

Meanwhile, the former socialist Senator Claudio Alescio pens an essay to the Roman Times, titled "The New Roman Empire", where he strongly criticizes the government for failing to defeat our enemies, and decries Socialist pacifism as "impossible" to maintain.

The piece is fairly popular among a segment of the Roman population - particularly disenfranchised Christian Socialists.
To the future
WIth the dawn of the 20th century, the state of education in Rome has never been better. Almost 94% of our population is literate, and the academia is flourishing.
Despite having disavowed the unscrupulous practices of the Primo era, Consul Filangieri did not replace the numerous high standing members of the Socialist Party who were part of the problem.

In early 1900, a newspaper, "Forward", with unknown sources of funding appears, with staunchly pro-socialist messages. The paper soon becomes very popular for espousing populist rhetoric, and Claudio Alescio joins as an editor.
The 1%
The World's Fair
A world's fair occurs in Rome, adding to our great prestige. We show off the modernized city in the process, and all the world is captivated by the glory the Republic: a centre of democracy, liberalism and freedom in a land of tyrants.

Or, at least that what we used to be.
Round them up and shoot 'em
A woman violates the Women's Education Act, and is arrested. In the arrest, she struggles violently with the police, leading to her being shot. The incident sparks national fury from the liberals, and it is becoming increasingly clear that the Christian Socialists are dwelling away from the "moral standard" of society and becoming increasing puritan.
A Lead Widened
Continued disappointment with the Women's Education Act leads to the Liberals widening their lead in the Senate as the 29th Roman Senate gathers.

The Liberal Party is now confident that, given the right candidate, they can emerge victorious in the upcoming elections.
A spectre is haunting Europe... the spectre of chlorine gas
With recent developments in organic chemistry several of our less morally upright generals have suggested experimenting with using chemicals on the battlefield to gain an edge. The idea is interesting: though our chemists warn against catastrophic damage on the battlefield, that's precisely what we want.
A surge of nationalism!
Across Roman Africa, those who are tired of being trodden on by the Roman upper class are finally ready to rise. In particular, in Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt, the Radical Socialists have managed to combined communism with nationalism, somehow, and are instigating conflicts in an attempt to push their agenda.

All this, of course, is beyond the view of the Roman Senate, which is becoming increasingly confused with a reported uptick in violence.
More subsidies!
To the dismay of economists everywhere, the Liberal Party introduces large import subsidies for firms in Rome, closing up our surplus. The Socialists condemn the move as "corporate welfare", but the corporations lobby hard enough and it passes through.
Jesus Bloody Christ
In early 1902, a member of the Romanov family is killed when visiting Warsaw, prompting the Russian army to enter for "correctional activities" that result in the deaths of 12 000 Poles.

Germany once again demands freedom for the Polish people, and the countdown to disaster begins again.
Further military innovation
Rome and Germany continue to hold military exercises, where we innovate new tactics and test out new ideas on the field. It is here where we mention to the Germans, in passing, our new "superweapon" in construction.
The Quadruple Entente
As the lines are drawn in the sand once again, this time the British Empire opts to support the Russians, thus leaving it as Germany and Rome v the World.

The Consul is now increasing worried about what he views as an alliance network in favor of our enemies. "Forward" and other populist papers, push for war, claiming the France and A-H are "audacious" former allies, now traitorous enemies who ought to be crushed. Many papers invoke upon the chaos between the 70s up until the fall of Savoy, perpetuate by the French Kingdom, and demand the destruction of France. Claudio Alescio is at the forefront of the pro-war movement.
The Germans step down
In May, with less than two months to go to the beginning of the campaigning season for the next Consulship, the Germans meet in the Moscow Peace Accords where they concede all points and agree to respect Russian control over Poland. Consul Filangieri welcomes the news.

This, however, prompts an enranged Claudio Alescio to finally stand up. He announces his intention to run as Consul in the upcoming elections, as a member of his newly formed Roman Front Party. Alescio advocates a party platform rather similar to that of his Christian Socialist roots, but taken to a logical extreme. He courts the religious right with extreme policy on foreigner, proposing the banning of entry to the Republic of all non-Christians, claiming they bring violence and rape. He supports the existing syndicalist economy, and aggressively campaigns for war with, and destruction of, France and Austria-Hungary. He also supports the creation of a New Empire, proposing the annexation of large swathes of foreign territory, in order to "Bring glory back to Rome".

Alescio is almost immediately condemned by the political establishment for being crude and extreme.
The 1903 Roman Elections
The Roman election season is announced in August of 1902.

Nicola Filangieri announces his desire not to run: his agenda for his term largely compromised by international crises. Instead, the Socialists opt to field Speranzio Nero, a veteran member of the Socialist Supreme Council, magistrate of Naples between 1881-1888 and Senator from Naples since 1889. Nero was elected magistrate following the removal of the previous Liberal magistrate due to Socialist slander, and is believed by many opponents to be a living embodiment of the magistrate capture practiced by the Socialist Party. He was also one of the members accused of being involved in the Primo Scandal, who was later pardoned by Filangieri. Senator Nero is, to many, the living embodiment of the Socialist "establishment".

The Liberal Party fields Senator Ciervo, the Senator who passed the widely acclaimed Ciervo Bill and a well known orator among the Roman masses.

The Moderate Party fields Adolfo Locati, a rich businessman who also served as magistrate of Aquila, an important swing province. Locati plans to campaign on foreign policy, needing to distinguish himself from the other candidates who will likely fight over economic extremes. Locati also plans to tout his business experience as useful in running the economy. However true that statement may be.

Claudio Alescio and his Roman Front disregard economic issues entirely, focusing solely on the annihilation of Rome's enemies, on re-funding the military, on expelling foreigners and on putting an end to the liberal movements "by force if needed". He also attacks Marxism and Communism, claiming that they are "major threats" to the Republic, and calls for ban on the Radical Socialist party. He is largely derided as being out of step with the political climate.
The Roman Communist Revolution
Twelve days into the start of the campaign season, the Radical Socialists pull their trump card.

A series of explosions rock major cities, including Aquila, and sudden mass protests break out, organized carefully beforehand. A harsh police response triggers more violence, and several onlookers join in on the chaos. Whilst the violence in Italy isn't particularly major, reports of huge swathes of Ethiopia and Sudan being overrun by the people, communist militias and former soldiers in the Ethiopian army come flooding into Rome.

As Consul Filangieri summons the leader of the Radical Socialists, who happened to leave for Egypt only a few days prior, he struggles to come up with a response that would jeopardize the already close elections. He orders the Roman army to put down the rebellion in Italy, but fails to form a cohesive strategy to defeat the African revolutionaries.

(I actually didn't realize communists rose up in Africa. I pay dearly for this)

Meanwhile, Alescio gives a speech about how he is "vindicated" by the sudden uprising of the communists, and attacks the Christian Socialist Party for being too afraid to destroy their "brethren".
The Rome Putsch
As the campaign season drags on, the revolutionaries are put down in Italy but continue to overrun massive swathes of Roman Africa.

All the while, the other candidates focus on economic issues, refusing to acknowledge the events in Africa. Alescio, on the other hand, uses this as evidence of the "degeneracy" of the Negro and of the Muslims, deriding all of them as militant communists looking to destroy Rome. He attacks the slow response of the Roman government.

This all culminates in November 3, when supporters of Claudio Alescio lead a sudden uprising in Rome, the Rome Putsch, aimed at overthrowing the government. They burn down the shops owned by Jews or Muslims, and attack a Muslim ghetto where the Roman Sudanese community was based. Later in the day they manage to storm the Roman Senate, killing several Senators, but the Roman government clamps down on the movement.

Alescio is arrested, but let go after he insists that he cannot be arrested for actions of his supporters, and that he has violated no laws of the Republic by merely "telling it like it is".
January 1903
There is some talk in the Roman government of banning the Roman Front, but this results in protests throughout December. Consul Filangieri decides against doing so, believing that it would make the violence worse. In the 1903 Senatorial elections, the Roman Front expands its control of the Senate to 4.38%.
The Second Wave of Revolution
The Senate holds a hearing in early January on the practices of the Radical Socialist Party, but this merely triggers a new wave of uprisings throughout Roman Africa.

The Republic finally responds, preparing an attack force to reclaim Ethiopia and crush any dreams of African liberation.
Civilian Casualties don't matter if they're black
In fighting in Roman Africa, we perfect some new military tactics!
This isn't going well
A poorly supplied colonial legion is sent down the Nile to attempt to liberate the occupied provinces, but is caught and surrounded by a massive army of armed revolutionaries. In one of the most horrific humanitarian catastrophes witnessed in the colonies, General Zunica orders to deployment of chemical weapons developed only a few years earlier.

The revolutionaries - everyday farmers, with even children among them - choke on the chlorine gas, dying with screams of pain as they experience agony they never though imaginable. Many begin to scatter, but are gunned down by vengeful members of the Roman legion. Others valiantly attempt to charge the Roman position but are either smashed into oblivion by artillery fire or fall short and choke on their blood as chlorine fills the battlefield.
Chaos in Africa: oh, and the Socialists won
As the war in Africa rages on, the Roman Convention occurs on March 8.

The third Socialist Consul in a row is proclaimed, with Senator Nero obtaining a mere 33.5% of the vote. The Liberals approach striking distance, with 30% of the vote, and the Moderate position remains uncompetitive as possible.

Politics, in the future, will be between the Liberals and the Socialists it seems. A FOX News' viewers worst nightmare.

The Socialist base in the South is largely eroded by this election, with the Liberals making significant headway.

Alescio makes some impact, largely dragging votes from the Socialists as well as moralistic Moderates, but isn't given enough media attention to become a serious contender.

Consul Filangieri resigns, handing over the Consulship to Consul Nero. He issues a warning about "populists" to the Party before resigning from politics entirely, content to spending his final few years in isolation.
The Battle of Aswan Ends
The conflict in Aswan ends, after defeating reinforcements led by one Sigismondo Filangieri, brother of Nicola and a revolutionary communist who disappeared into Africa in the 90s as part of the Radical Socialist plot.

The Roman legion, despite using chemical weapons, still suffers major losses due to supply issues. They pressure the Roman Senate to send help. Consul Nero approves the movement of legions from Rome to Africa.

Meanwhile, the Communists in Ethiopia establish the Ethiopian Socialist Republic, and begins to develop the trappings of a state. The Ethiopian Emperor Melenik II flees Ethiopia to British territory, where he sets sail for Roman Oman. The Roman Governor of Abyssinia goes missing, and is presumed to have been killed by the revolutionaries.
Into the Fire
The 9th Legion arrives from Italy and moves towards the Nile. Meanwhile, the Roman Colonial Legion engages with a much larger army in Marsa Alam, utterly devastating them through use of chemical weapons.
As the fighting continues in Africa, the third Olympic games are announced in Turin, Savoy.
Oh fuck
As we enter May, it is clear that our armies are a long time away from reaching Ethiopia. At the same time, the revolutionaries would likely stand down easily if promised a settlement involving no bloodshed.

Rome is humiliated on the international stage as we struggle to deal with a bunch of Africans rising up.
The Gonder Compromise
A delegation from Rome is sent to Gonder, where we offer to settle the issue - the Republic of Ethiopia will be crafted as a fully fledged autonomous state under the Roman Republic, joining the likes of Savoy.

The settlement is not convincing to the Radical Socialists who led the revolution, who want to establish a communist state, but for the Ethiopians who were interested only in self-rule, there is massive celebration. Many begin to stand down, and the revolution in Ethiopia dies with the founding of the Ethiopian Republic.

The compromise is derided by Claudio Alescio, who claims it shows the "weakness" of the Roman government, and is wholly unpopular within Rome. In particular, the compromise gives the Ethiopians representative Senators in the Roman Senate (akin to Savoy). Simply seeing blacks in the Senate is both infuriating to many members of the public, and humiliating to the Roman political class.

Fighting continues in Sudan, where Consul Nero is desperate not to have to resort to compromise.
Violence in Kordofan
The trappings of another communist state is set up in Kordofan, but now the Roman army is in place to immediately invade.

Meanwhile, the armed forces of the Ethiopian Republic turn around and help put down the communist revolutionaries near their border.
The continued political push in the north for greater women's rights and other liberal movements has been met with reactionary blowbacks, thus increasing polarization of society.
The development of tanks
As the final stage of the war in Africa is underway, we get to experiment with crappy tanks and other forms of mechanized warfare.
The War in Africa is over
After over a year of fighting, the revolution is finally put down, and key conspirators are arrested or killed in the fighting. Order is restored to Sudan and the Ethiopian Republic is propped up to grow to be successful in the future.

But the revolution was without a doubt one of the greatest embarrassments to ever happen to the Republic, and even as the war abroad dies down, within Rome the opportunists strike.
The City of the World's Desire
Standing in Rome one can look in any direction to see the pinnacle of modernity. And even in the backdrop of this wonderful modern city, remnants of times past can be observed in the Colosseum, in the ruins of the Roman Senate of the Ancient Republic.

Rome is a Republic: a shining beacon of freedom in a continent of tyranny. The Senate rules not alone on top of an ivory tower, but by the people of the Republic. It is a shining testament towards the power of the individual.

And yet, as you look through newspapers throughout the city, listen to speeches of men claiming to "take back their nation" and to "make the Republic great again", you start to feel a sense of unease.

Next chapter:

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